ITU Thematic Reviews 2021 (Part 1)

SYNCHROINFO JOURNAL. Volume 7, Number 2 (2021). P. 32-40.


The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies (ICTs), driving innovation in ICTs together with 193 Member States and a membership of over 900 companies, universities, and international and regional organizations. Established over 150 years ago in 1865, ITU is the intergovernmental body responsible for coordinating the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promoting international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, improving communication infrastructure in the developing world, and establishing the worldwide standards that foster seamless interconnection of a vast range of communications systems. From broadband networks to cutting-edge wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, oceanographic and satellite-based earth monitoring as well as converging fixed-mobile phone, Internet and broadcasting technologies, ITU is committed to connecting the world. For more information, visit

Keywords: radio interference, geospatial, smart sustainable cities, Earth stations in motion (ESIM), 5G, human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and health


1. Recommendation ITU-T K.91 “Guidance for assessment, evaluation and monitoring of human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields”
2. Recommendation ITU-T K.91 Supplement 1 “Guide on electromagnetic fields and health”
3. Recommendation ITU-T K.61, “Guidance on measurement and numerical prediction of electromagnetic fields for compliance with human exposure limits for telecommunication installations”
4. Recommendation ITU-T K.52, “Recommendation ITU-T K.52 (2018), Guidance on complying with limits for human exposure to electromagnetic fields”
5. Recommendation ITU-T K.70, “Recommendation ITU-T K.70 (2018), Mitigation techniques to limit human
exposure to EMFs in the vicinity of radiocommunication stations”
6. Recommendation ITU-T K.100, “Recommendation ITU-T K.100 (2018), Measurement of radio frequency electromagnetic fields to determine compliance with human exposure limits when a base station is put into service”
7. Recommendation ITU-R BS.1698, “Recommendation ITU-R BS.1698 (2005), Evaluating fields from terrestrial broadcasting transmitting systems operating in any frequency band for assessing exposure to non-ionizing radiation”;
9. ICT infrastructure for Financial inclusion is available at