MEDIA PUBLISHER GROUP
VIENNA, AUSTRIA

**Volume 3, Number 1 (2017)**

**CONTENTS**

**A.S. Adzhemov, I.S. Sineva **

EFFICIENCY OF GENETIC-LIKE CODING ALGORITHM FOR METRIC SPACE SOURCES **(pp. 2-5)**

**D.V. Kochemasov, V.N. Kuleshov**

RING STRUCTURE LC QUADRATURE VCO: THEORY AND ADS-SIMULATION **(pp. 6-10)**

**D.V. Kochemasov, V.N. Kuleshov, K.I. Chernova**

QUADRATURE OSCILLATIONS SOURCE, CONSISTING OF TWO MUTUALLY SYNCHRONISED OSCILLATORS **(pp. 11-17)**

**A.C. Kuzmenkov, Y.A. Grebenko**

LOW-SOUND FREQUENCY SYNTHESIS WITH PLL AND FREQUENCY OFFSET IN THE FEEDBACK **(pp. 18-22)**

**А.A. Mitrofanov, N.N. Udalov, A.R. Safin**

PHASE NOISE REDUCING IN THE PHASE-LOCKED LOOP OF THE SPIN-TORQUE NANOOSCILLATOR **(pp. 23-28)**

**A.V. Pestryakov, E.R. Khasyanova**

TIME AVERAGE METHOD USING DUE TO THE DC-OFFSET COMPENSATION TO THE DIRECT CONVERSION RECEIVERS **(pp. 29-35)**

__________________________

**ABSTRACTS & REFERENCES**

**EFFICIENCY OF GENETIC-LIKE CODING ALGORITHM FOR METRIC SPACE SOURCES**

**A.S. Adzhemov, **asa@mtuci.ru, **I.S. Sineva,** iss@mtuci2.ru,*Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics, Moscow, Russia*

**Abstrac**t

An original concept for irredundant code efficiency rising is discussed. It is shown that some genetic-like algorithm applying to the class of permutative equivalent codes can suggest some code that will be too mach stable in respect of disturbance appearance. Source space topology, concordant metrization procedure, miscellaneous error structure can be properly taking into account in technical feasibility of this algorithm. Examples of 2D Euclidean source spaces and their coding are presented.

**References **

1. Goldberg D.E. *Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine learning*. Addison-Wesley, 1989.

2. Holland J.H. *Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems*. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. 1975.

3. Surry P.D., Radcliff N.J. *Formal Algorithms + Formal Representation = Search Strategies. Parallel Problem Solving from Nature IV*. Springer-Verlag, LNCS. 1996, pp. 336-375.

**RING STRUCTURE LC QUADRATURE VCO: THEORY AND ADS-SIMULATION**

**D.V. Kochemasov, **KochemasovDV@gmail.com, **V.N. Kuleshov, **vnk37@mail.ru*,**National Research University «MPEI», Moscow, Russia*

**Abstract**

Noise properties of the ring quadrature oscillators (RQO) models are investigated. Results of theoretic calculation of PM and AM noises power spectral densities (PSD) were verified by ADS simulation. An influence of supply current noise and varicaps nonlinearities on the PM and AM noises PSD was investigated using ADS simulation.

**References**

1. Kuleshov V.N., Kochemasov D.V. FM and AM ring noise of LC-AHCC with phasing RC circuits. *Telecommunication*. 2015. No. 5.

2. ADS Documentation http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb/pdf/ads15/manuals.htm.

**QUADRATURE OSCILLATIONS SOURCE, CONSISTING OF TWO MUTUALLY SYNCHRONISED
OSCILLATORS**

**D.V. Kochemasov, **KochemasovDV@gmail.com*, ***V.N. Kuleshov, **vnk37@mail.ru, **K.I. Chernova, ***National Research University «MPEI», Moscow, Russia*

**Abstract**

Results of theoretical analysis of quadrature oscillation source consisting of two mutually synchronized oscillators are presented. It is shown that to provide generation of single frequency quadrature oscillations it is important to take into consideration the phase delay, introduced by active devices, that are used in the synchronized oscillators.

**References**

1. Mazzanti A., Svelto F. A 1.8- GHz Injection-Locked Quadrature CMOS VCO with Low Phase Noise and High Phase Accuracy. *IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems-I: Regular Papers*. Vol. 53. No. 3. March 2006, pp. 554-560.

2. Chernova K.I. The formation of quadrature oscillations in oscillators with mutual synchronization at a frequency of self-oscillations*. Abstracts of the 20th International. scientific conf. Stud. and asp. “Radio electronics, electrical engineering and energy”*, February 27-28. 2014. Moscow: Publishing. house MPEI. Vol. 1. 2014, pp. 38.

3. Kapranov M.V., Kuleshov V.N., Utkin G.M. The theory of oscillations in radio engineering. Moscow: Nauka. 1984. 320 p.

**LOW-SOUND FREQUENCY SYNTHESIS WITH PLL AND FREQUENCY OFFSET IN THE
FEEDBACK**

**A.C. Kuzmenkov, **kuzmenkovas89@gmail.com, **Y.A. Grebenko,***National Research University «MPEI», Moscow, Russia*

**Abstract**

This paper discusses the benefits and disadvantages of the PLL architecture with frequency offset in feedback loop. The positive and negative features and phase noise performance of traditional PLL and PLL with frequency offset were considered. It presents mathematical expressions for output phase noise of each of PLL. Real phase noise performance of first and second PLL was evaluated. Evaluation was carried out while taking into account the performance of best present-day components. Special proprietary software to calculate the levels of spurious “Spurs Calculator” was demonstrated. The program calculates the frequency with spurious for PLL synthesizer with frequency offset in the loop and the DDS in the reference path. Advantages of multiple-loop synthesizer with frequency offset in the loop are implemented in low-noise synthesizer UNO-10M.

**References**

1. Kuzmenkov A.S., Grebenko Yu.A., Polyakov A.E. Investigation of the spectral power density of phase noise of a hybrid frequency synthesizer. *Materials of the international scientific and technical seminar SINHROINFO 2013*, Yaroslavl. Moscow: Bris-M LLC.

2. Bobkovich P.I., Kuzmenkov A.S. Domestic frequency synthesizer with high speed and low phase noise. *Modern Electronics*. 2015. No. 2, pp. 32-37.

**PHASE NOISE REDUCING IN THE PHASE-LOCKED LOOP OF THE SPIN-TORQUE
NANOOSCILLATOR**

**А.A. Mitrofanov, N.N. Udalov,***National Research University «MPEI»,***A.R. Safin, ***National Research University «MPEI»; National Research University «BMSTU», Moscow, Russia*

**Abstract**

Spin-transfer nano-oscillators represent a new type of microwave radiation generators, which have such advantages as nanoscale, wide frequency tuning range, compatibility with CMOS production technology, low power consumption, radiation resistance. The principle of operation of such generators is based on the spin-transfer torque effect, due to which a magnetization precession occurs in the magnetic layer of the spin-transfer nanoscillators with a sufficient value of the direct bias current. Due to the bias current and the effect of giant magnetoresistance, the output voltage fluctuates. Depending on the design, the bias current and the external magnetic field, the frequency range covered is from hundreds of megahertz to hundreds of gigahertz.

**References**

1. Rippard W.H., Pufall M.R., Kaka S., Silva T.J. and Russek S.E. Current-driven microwave dynamics in magnetic point contacts as a function of applied field angle. *Phys. Rev. B.* Vol. 70. 2004, p. 100406,

2. Slavin A., Tiberkevich V. Nonlinear auto-oscillator theory of microwave generation by spin-polarized current. *IEEE Trans. On Magn*. Vol. 45. No. 4, April 2009, pp. 1875-1918.

3. Stefano Bonetti, Pranaba Muduli, Fred Mancoff, and Johan Åkerman / Spin torque oscillator frequency versus magnetic field angle: The prospect of operation beyond 65 GHz. *Appl. Phys. Lett.* 2009. Vol. 94, p. 102507.

4. Mishagin K.G., Shalfeev V.D. Synchronization of a spin nanogenerator using a phase locked loop. *Letters in ZhTF*. 2010. Vol. 36. Issue 22, pp. 51-57.

5. Villard P., Ebels U., Houssameddine D., Katine J., Mauri D., Delaet B., Vincent P., Cyrille M., Viala B., Michel J., Prouvée J. and Badets F. A GHz Spintronic-Based RF Oscillator. *IEEE journal of solid-state circuits*. Vol. 45. No. 1, 2010, pp. 214-223.

6. Mitrofanov A.A., Safin A.R., Udalov N.N. Phase synchronization system of a spin-transfer nanoscillator. *Letters in ZhTF.* 2014. Vol.40. Issue 13, pp. 66-72.

7. Kim J.-V., Tiberkevich V., Slavin A. Stochastic theory of spin-transfer oscillator linewidths. *Phys. Rev. Lett*. 2008. Vol. 100, p. 017207.

8. Zhalud V., Kuleshov V.N. *Noises in semiconductor devices*. Moscow: Owls. radio, 1977, p. 338.

**TIME AVERAGE METHOD USING DUE TO THE DC-OFFSET COMPENSATION TO THE
DIRECT CONVERSION RECEIVERS**

**A.V. Pestryakov, E.R. Khasyanova,***Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics, Moscow, Russia*

**Abstract**

Оne of the main disadvantages if the direct conversion receiver is the DC-offset. The method of this impairment compensation based on time average of receiving signal has been considered in this work. The simulation of the QPSK transceiver with AWGN channel considering of algorithm working was done with using of MATLAB/Simulink. The results of the work is BER performance characteristics for the QPSK signals receiving.

**Reference**

1. Kosichkina T.P., Khasyanova E.R. Analysis of the influence of the characteristics of quadrature converters on the operation of radio receivers of digital signals of radio communications and broadcasting. *T-Comm*. No. 9. 2013, pp. 100-103.

2. Pestryakov A.V., Khasyanova E.R. The use of the gradient search method for estimating and compensating for the shift of the constant component when receiving signals with M-KAM modulation. *24th International Crimean Conference “Microwave and Telecommunication Technologies”*, September 7-13, 2014, Sevastopol, Crimea, Russia. Sevastopol, 2014. Vol. 1, section. 3/1: General issues of communication systems and networks, pp. 234-235.

3. Poborchaya N.E., Pestryakov A.V., Khasyanova E.R. Synthesis and analysis of the compensation algorithm to the QAM signal distortion due to non-idealities of quadrature downconversion at awgn and phase noise in the presence of quazideterministic bandpass interference. *T-Comm*. No.3. 2015, pp. 82-86.