MEDIA PUBLISHER GROUP
VIENNA, AUSTRIA

**Volume 4, Number 4 (2018)**

**CONTENTS**

**V.A. Ivanov, D.V. Ivanov, N.V. Ryabova, A.A. Chernov, V.V. Ovchinnikov, M.I. Ryabova **

RESEARCH OF FREQUENCY DISPERSION CHARACTERISTICS IN IONOSPHERIC HF RADIO CHANNEL ON THE LABVIEW BASE **(pp. 3-6)**

**E.P. Kubyshkin, D.I. Sterin, N.B. Fedotov**

MULTISTABILITY EFFECTS IN THE RC-OCSILLATOR WITH DELAYED FEEDBACK **(pp. 7-10)**

**A.V. Lenshin, V.N. Tikhomirov, N. Tikhomirov**

FREQUENCY SYNTHESIS ARCHITECTURE WITH COMMUTATION OF PHASE AUTOMATIC RING ELEMENTS **(pp. 11-15)**

**E.M. Lobov, E.O. Smerdova**

METHOD OF OPTIMIZATION OF THE EVALUATION OF FREQUENCY DISPERSION PARAMETERS USING A WIDE BAND SHAUM-SHAPED SIGNAL **(pp. 16-20)**

**I. Mamedov, I. Efendiev**

ADAPTIVE METHOD FOR SELECTING MODULATION TYPE IN WIRELESS BROADBAND RADIO ACCESS SYSTEMS **(pp. 21-24)**

**S.V. Melnik, N.I.Smirnov, D.O. Antonnikov**

SYSTEM OF DETERMINING LOCATION AND OBJECTS IDENTIFICATION **(pp. 25-29)**

**V.P. Ponomarenko**

AUTOMODULATION MODES IN THE FREQUENCY-PHASE AUTO-CONTROL SYSTEM WITH MULTI-FREQUENCY DISCRIMINATOR **(pp. 30-34)**

_____________________

**ABSTRACTS & REFERENCES**

**RESEARCH OF
FREQUENCY DISPERSION CHARACTERISTICS IN IONOSPHERIC HF RADIO CHANNEL ON THE LABVIEW
BASE**

**V.A. Ivanov, D.V. Ivanov, N.V. Ryabova, A.A. Chernov, V.V. Ovchinnikov, ***Volga State Technological University,*Y*oshkar-Ola, Russia*

**Abstract**

The RF ionospheric radio channel is subject to both deterministic and stochastic effects. As a result, the signals passing through the RF radio channel undergo dispersion distortion. Therefore, the study of the characteristics of frequency dispersion and phase dispersion effects depending on the state of the ionosphere is an urgent scientific task. Purpose of work: development of techniques and software for studying the characteristics of the frequency dispersion of the ionospheric RF radio channel.

**References**

1. Zhou, C., Z. Zhao, F. Deng, B. Ni, and G. Chen (2010), Midlatitude ionospheric HF channel reciprocity: Evidence from the ionospheric oblique incidence sounding experiments, Radio Sci., 45, RS6017, doi:10.1029/2010RS004477.

2. Ivanov D.V., Ivanov V.A., Ryabova M.I., Mikheeva N.N., Katkov E.V. Distortions of the broadband radio signal in the ionosphere caused by nonlinear frequency dispersion. *Bulletin of the Volga State Technological University. Series “Radio Engineering and Infocommunication Systems”.* 2013. No2 (18), pp. 5-15.

3. Ivanov V.A., Ivanov D.V., Mikheeva N.N., Ryabova M.I. *Dispersion distortions of the system characteristics of broadband ionospheric radio channels*. Yoshkar-Ola: Volga State Technological University. 2015. 160 p.

**MULTISTABILITY
EFFECTS IN THE RC-OCSILLATOR WITH DELAYED FEEDBACK **

**E.P. Kubyshkin,** kubysh.e@yandex.ru, **D.I. Sterin,** deemon2duo@gmail.com, **N.B. Fedotov,** nikofedo@rambler.ru, *Yaroslavl State University P.G. Demidov, Yaroslavl, Russia*

**Abstract**

Periodic oscillations are the main modes of operation of electromagnetic oscillation generators. Effective methods for studying the conditions for the occurrence of periodic oscillations and their type are an important applied problem. A new method is proposed for studying the conditions for the occurrence of periodic solutions of a mathematical model of an RC generator with delayed feedback, a method for constructing asymptotic formulas for periodic solutions depending on the gain and delay. The possibility of the existence of several stable periodic solutions at the same time, i.e. multi-stability solutions. Introduction RC electromagnetic oscillators are widely used as internal oscillators in various electronic devices. In the design of the active element, they use only resistors and capacitors, which are more convenient to use than inductors, and cheaper. In oscillators of this type, amplification occurs due to delayed feedback; therefore, the form of electromagnetic waves differs from sinusoidal and substantially depends on the parameters of the active element, the delay value and the parameters of the feedback circuit. The development of effective methods for analyzing the conditions for the emergence of self-oscillating regimes and their nature is a very important task. The phenomenon of multistability in the operation of the generator can be used to develop systems for secure information transfer.

**References**

1. Kubyshkin E.P., Fedotov N.B. Analysis of periodic solutions of a mathematical model of an RC generator with delayed feedback. *Bulletin of Yaroslavl State University. P.G. Demidov*. *Series Natural and technical sciences*. 2015. No. 1, pp. 66-71.

2. Kubyshkin E.P. The construction of the asymptotics of periodic solutions of an RC generator with delayed feedback. *Bulletin of Yaroslavl State University named after P.G. Demidov. Series Natural and technical sciences*. 2011. No. 2, pp. 87-94.

**FREQUENCY SYNTHESIS
ARCHITECTURE WITH COMMUTATION OF PHASE AUTOMATIC RING ELEMENTS**

**A.V. Lenshin,** andrey-lenshin@yandex.ru, *Air Force Academy named after Professor N.E. Zhukovsky and Yu.A. Gagarin, ***V.N. Tikhomirov,** vtikhomirov@mail.ru*Concern Sozvezdie JSC, ***N. Tikhomirov,** tikhomir@sozvezdie.ru*Concern * *Sozvezdie* * JSC, Voronezh, Russia*

**Abstract**

To improve the speed and spectral characteristics of frequency synthesizers, an architecture based on the use of a system with switching structures and parameters can be used. The possibility of obtaining sufficiently high dynamic accuracy in frequency synthesizers is achieved by ensuring a rational change in the overall gain at all stages of auto-tuning, when double automatic control is performed – relay control for large discrepancies and adaptive for small ones. At the same time, auto-tuning with variable inertia makes it possible to bring the control law closer to optimal with a high degree.

**References**

1. Tikhomirov N.M., Romanov S.K., Lenshin A.V. *Generation of FM signals in synthesizers with automatic tuning*. Moscow: Radio and communications. 2004. 210 p.

2. Romanov S.K., Tikhomirov N.M., Lenshin A.V. *Pulsed-phase self-tuning systems in frequency synthesis and stabilization devices: monograph*. Moscow: Radio and communications, 2010. 328 p.

3. Tikhomirov N.M., Lenshin A.V. RF patent 2419201, H03L 7/16. Adaptive frequency synthesizer with switching elements of the phase-locked loop. No. 2010106933/09; declared 02/24/2010; publ. 05/20/2011, Bull. Number 14.

**METHOD OF
OPTIMIZATION OF THE EVALUATION OF FREQUENCY DISPERSION PARAMETERS USING A WIDE
BAND SHAUM-SHAPED SIGNAL **

**E.M. Lobov, E.O. Smerdova,** lobov@srd.mtuci.ru*Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics, Moscow, Russia*

**Abstract**

A method for estimating the slope of the dispersion characteristic of the ionospheric channel using a wideband noise-like signal is presented. The accuracy of the assessment and the possibility of increasing it were investigated. The frequency dispersion of the ionospheric channel is one of the most significant obstacles to the operation of decameter communication systems in a wide frequency band. Dispersion distortions of broadband signals lead to a significant deterioration in the noise immunity characteristics of the radio line, a decrease in the likelihood of proper detection of signals on the air, and synchronization problems with them. An urgent task is to evaluate the parameters of the frequency dispersion of the ionospheric channel, followed by the correction of the dispersion distortions of broadband signals at the receiving point. Typically, this problem is solved using LFM ionosondes as part of decameter communication. It is of interest to estimate the parameters of the frequency dispersion of the ionospheric channel directly from the information broadband signal, without the use of a LFM ionosonde.

**References**

1. Ivanov D.V. *Methods and mathematical models for studying the propagation of complex decameter signals and correcting their dispersion distortions*. Yoshkar-Ola: MarSTU. 2006. 266 p.

2. Lobov E.M. Estimation of noise immunity of a radio line with frequency dispersion. *Transactions of RNTORES im. A.S. Popov, series: “Scientific session dedicated to Radio Day.”* Moscow: RNTORES A.S. Popova. Vol. LXV, 2010, pp. 404-406.

3. Lobov E.M., Kandaurov N.A., Kosilov I.S., Elsukov B.A. The quality of detection of broadband signals in the conditions of dispersion distortion in the ionospheric radio line. *Synchronization, signal generation and processing systems.* 2015, pp. 162-164.

4. Lobov E.M., Kandaurov N.A., Kosilov I.S., Elsukov B.A. Method for estimating the parameters of the frequency dispersion of the ionospheric channel using a broadband phase-shifted signal. *T-Comm*. No. 9. 2014, pp. 49-53.

5. Adzhemov S.S., Vorobev K.A., Kosilov I.S., Lobov E.M. A modem for organizing ionospheric communication using multi-frequency broadband signals. *T-Comm*. 2012. Vol. 6. No. 9, pp. 4-8.

6. Lobov E.M., Kosilov I.S., Kandaurov N.A., Elsukov B.A. A method for determining the noise immunity of complex signal-code structures based on a family of broadband orthogonal signals and a non-binary LDPC code in the conditions of the ionosphere channel. *T-Comm*. 2014. Vol. 8. No. 8, pp. 55-59.

7. Adzhemov S.S., Vinogradov A.G., Lobov E.M., Teokharov A.N. Direct estimation of the full electronic content of the ionosphere (TEC) by special processing of a broadband radar signal. *Synchronization, signal generation and processing systems*. 2015. Vol. 6. No. 4, pp. 167-169.

**ADAPTIVE METHOD
FOR SELECTING MODULATION TYPE IN WIRELESS BROADBAND RADIO ACCESS SYSTEMS**

**I. Mamedov,** isamamedov@bk.ru, *Azerbaijan Technical University, Baku, Azerbaijan, ***I. Efendiev,** ilham.afandiyev@gmail.com,*Azerbaijan Technical University; **State Radio Frequency Department Min. Communications and Information Technologies of the Republic of Azerbaijan*

**Abstract**

Changes in the statistical characteristics of the pilot signal were studied as it passed through the steps of the feedback loop. Plots of the dependence of the probability of error on the value of the energy parameter are constructed for various values of the QAM modulation positions, taking into account the effects of broadband interference and fluctuation noise. The influence of the error of measuring the signal-to-noise ratio on the transition from one type of modulation to another, as well as the dependence of the error transition on the probability of error, is estimated.

**References**

1. Hakegard J.E. Coding and Modulation for LMDS and Analysis of the LMDS Channels. *Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology*. 2000. Vol. 105. No.5, pp. 721-734.

2. Levin BR, Schwartz V. *Probabilistic models and methods in communication and control systems*. Moscow: Radio and communications. 1985. 312 p.

3. Mamedov I.R., Aliyev Z. B. A probabilistic description of the amplitude of the pilot signal at the output of a closed feedback loop. *Telecommunication.* 2012. No. 2, pp. 39-42.

4. Aronov D.A. Estimation of error probability per bit of transmitted information in the presence of noise and modulated interference. *Telecommunication.* 2007. No. 11, pp. 56-59.

**SYSTEM OF
DETERMINING LOCATION AND OBJECTS IDENTIFICATION**

**S.V. Melnik, N.I.Smirnov, ***MTUCI,***D.O. Antonnikov, ***Federal State Budgetary Institution of Higher Education, Moscow, Russia*

**Abstract**

A hardware-software complex for identifying personnel movements is described. The system is designed for any objects with limited access to certain zones. The operation of the complex is based on the detection of signals from the corresponding beacons located in areas with different access rights. The detection of Color Code in mobile communication networks can be considered an analogue of the system, when each base station informs all mobile subscribers of its code and this code identifies the operator company. The subscriber station, having received the code, understands whether this base station can or cannot be used. In the identification and location system, a receiver located on the employee’s badge receives information from the beacon and transmits its identification number. If access to this territory is allowed for this identification number, the door opens and the system records who entered when.

**References**

1. Gryazev A.N., Melnik S.V., Petrov D.A., Smirnov N.I. New Generation Mobile Networks Synchronization. *T-Сomm*. 2015. No. 2.

2. Melnik S.V., Smirnov N.I. Use of a distributed synchronization scheme in 4G and 5G mobile communication networks. *Conference Papers Synchronization, signal generation and processing systems in infocommunications SINCHROINFO 2014*. Voronezh: Inzvyazizdat. 2014.

3. Melnik S.V., Smirnov N.I., Distributed synchronization in 4G and 5G mobile networks. *T-Сomm*. 2014. No. 4.

4. Melnik S.V., Petrova E.N., Smirnov N.I. Service timing for 4G and 5G mobile networks IEEE “Problems of Infocommunications. Science and Technology ”(PICS & T-2014). October 14-17, 2014.

5. Gryazev A.N., Melnik S.V., Smirnov N.I. Time synchronization for determining the location of objects in enclosed spaces. *Synchronization, signal generation and processing systems*. 2015. No.1, pp. 51-54.

**AUTOMODULATION
MODES IN THE FREQUENCY-PHASE AUTO-CONTROL SYSTEM WITH MULTI-FREQUENCY
DISCRIMINATOR **

**V.P. Ponomarenko, **ponomarenko@vmk.unn.ru, *Nizhny Novgorod State University N.I. Lobachevsky, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia*

**Abstract**

Phase and frequency locked loop systems are widely used in radiophysical and radio engineering systems of wide use as the main elements of systems for the formation, transmission, optimal reception and processing of radio signals. Currently, in studies of the properties of the dynamic behavior of systems with phase and frequency self-tuning, great interest is shown in the study of self-modulation modes of a controlled generator, in the study of the mechanisms of their excitation and development when the parameters of the control circuits are changed. This interest is largely stimulated by the prospect of creating, on the basis of automatic frequency control systems, devices for generating complex regular and chaotic signals for use in modern infocommunication technologies. An important area of research in solving these problems is the search for effective ways to increase the set of possible self-modulation modes of various versions of systems with phase and frequency auto-tuning. As such pathways, we consider the complication of filters in control circuits and nonlinear characteristics of phase and frequency discriminators. Some results of the study of the dynamic behavior of a self-generating system with frequency-phase self-tuning due to the use of a sinusoidal system in the frequency control circuit are presented. Such a discriminator is implemented on the basis of a phase discriminator and a delay line; its characteristic has an infinite number of zeros, which can be used as the set of transition frequencies of a multi-frequency discriminator. Consider the case of applying a first-order filter in a phase control circuit and a third-order filter in a frequency control circuit. In this case, the phase-locked loop autonomously demonstrates only regular modes, and in a separate frequency-locked loop system, chaotic self-modulation modes are possible along with regular ones.

**References**

1. Dmitriev A.S., Efremova E.V., Maksimov N.A., Panas A.I. *Generation of chaos*. Moscow: Technosphere. 2012. 442 p.

2. Dmitriev A.S., Kletsov A.V., Kuzmin L.V. Ultrawideband chaos generation in the decimeter range. *Radio engineering and electronics*. 2009. Vol. 54. No. 7, pp. 709-718.

3. Shakhtarin B.I., Kobylkina P.I., Sidorkina Yu.A., Kondratiev A.V., Mitin S.V. *Chaotic Oscillators*. Moscow: Helios ARV. 2007. 248 p.

4. Shalfeev V.D., Sailors V.V. *Nonlinear dynamics of phase synchronization systems*. Nizhny Novgorod: Publishing House of the Nizhny Novgorod State University. 2013. 366 p.

5. Kapranov M.V., Romanov U.V. Linear models of the ChAP system with a discriminator on the delay line. *Radio engineering*. 1988. No. 11, pp. 34-38.

6. Kaganov V.I. *Radio-electronic systems of automatic control. Computerized Course: Textbook for universities.* Moscow: Hotline – Telecom. 2009. 432 p.

7. Ponomarenko V.P. Nonlinear effects in a self-generating system with frequency-phase control. *News of universities. Applied nonlinear dynamics*. 2012. Vol. 20. No. 4, pp. 66-84.